Thirty Years War Essay Romeo And Juliet Play Essay

This naturally concerned his new subjects in the Kingdom of Bohemia, who were overwhelmingly Protestant.An elected monarchy, the Bohemian estates assembled and elected Ferdinand as king but also demanded that he recognize their rights, privileges, and religious liberties, granted to them by his uncle.It also recognized the rights of the heads of state to determine the religious situation within their own lands and which denomination would be their state religion.After over 100 years of political, religious, and social discord, a new political order had been established in the West.Previously, Catholic Europe had been united in a single political, cultural, and religious entity known as Christendom.Arising out of the ruins of the Western Roman Empire, it recognized universal dominion of the Catholic Church over religious and in many cases secular affairs.Four hundred years ago last month on May 23, 1618, the Second Defenestration of Prague took place.By throwing the representatives of the Austrian emperor out a window, the Bohemians (Czechs) started the Thirty Years’ War, the apocalyptic culmination of the religious and political divisions created by the reformation.

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Ferdinand was known for his support of the Catholic Counter-Reformation and had purged his personal lands of Protestants prior to assuming the crown.From 1517 until 1618, Europe was thrown into chaos as revolts, civil wars, and national conflicts flared across Europe.Many attempted to bring about a social-religious settlement by either force or negotiation, but no universal solution had been found by 1618.It was accepted that a Christian sovereign should defend the true religion, promote peace, and rule justly.These objectives quickly came into conflict once the Protestant Reformation created religious pluralism, and especially when one side rejected the very authority which held the whole political system together.The norms and practices of international diplomacy, the unwritten laws which govern affairs between nations, are not naturally fixed or universal among mankind.They are rather a consensus built upon centuries of commerce, political dialogue, ideological disputes, and war.In Germany, the war’s primary battleground, one-third of the population lay dead, and the population level did not return to its pre-war numbers until the 1800s.The political system that had governed Western Europe before the Reformation also died.Catholic and Protestant diplomats, staying in different cities and sending messages via riders because the pope had condemned the peace talks, hammered out the Peace of Westphalia after five years of negotiations.It established the state with “Westphalian sovereignty” as the basis of a new Western European order and recognized diplomatic equality among all participating states.

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  1. The writer may add more details to get extra credits from his Healthcare & Medicine teacher (the amount of money necessary to solve the issue, the way psychologists can help, family support, etc.) Write about the interventions that refer to the chosen topic. Do not overload your essay or another academic paper with many ideas.