Thesis On Routing In Wireless Sensor Networks

In this survey article, we are targeting an innovative aspect of analysis on routing in wireless sensor network (WSN) that has never been seen in the available literature before.

This article can be a guiding light for new researchers to comprehend the WSN technology, energy aware routing, and the factors that affect the energy aware routing in WSN.

In wireless sensor network, the scattering of nodes in the target area is to decentralize the network traffic and balance the computational load, increasing the network coverage, reliability, and capacity.

The information so obtained can be used in Ethernet-based networks as well as worldwide by connecting the sink to the IP-based network [5].This emerging technology also has its applications in Habitat Monitoring [16], Traffic Surveillance [17], Ocean Water and Bed Monitoring [18], Wildlife Monitoring [19], Cold Chain Monitoring [20], Landslide Detection [21], Vital Sign Monitoring [22], Tracking Vehicles [23], and Living and Residential Monitoring [24].A typical WSN application at the border is shown in Figure 1.The deployment of sensor nodes is either in uniform or in random fashion that is defined by the requirements and the available situation.Their line of sight communication range is 75 to 100 m with a 1/2 wave dipole antenna in the outdoor environment.The maximum data rate for signal transmission is 250 Kbps but it depends upon the choice of configuration and the radio. The Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) secures the data transmission.The positioning information technique like GPS-free localization [2], relative localization [3], or absolute localization [4] is used by the nodes to know about the transient nodes for communicating its data to far distant nodes or base station.This distributed computing paradigm is also enforced with various states of nodes as a sensor, router, or a gateway.This connectivity is depicted in the form of a nondirected graph with nodes as vertices and communication link as edges.Vibration has been proposed as an energy source that can be scavenged.So far as energy consumption is concerned, sensor acquisition can be achieved at 1 n J per sample, and modern processors can perform computation as low as 1 n J per instructions.

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  1. As stated by the National Education Association (NEA) on the distribution of males and females in vocations, “one-third of our menfolk are in agriculture, and one-third in non-agricultural productive areas; while two-thirds of our women are in the vocation of homemaking”.