Term Paper On The Civil Rights Movement Essay On Blackberry Picking By Seamus Heaney
Significantly, the committee’s October 1947 report, “To Secure These Rights,” provided civil rights proponents in Congress with a legislative blueprint for much of the next two decades.
Southern conservatives still held the levers of power on Capitol Hill.During the period from the end of World War II until the late 1960s, often referred to as America’s “Second Reconstruction,” the nation began to correct civil and human rights abuses that had lingered in American society for a century.A grassroots civil rights movement coupled with gradual but progressive actions by Presidents, the federal courts, and Congress eventually provided more complete political rights for African Americans and began to redress longstanding economic and social inequities.Though hesitant to override the states on civil rights matters, President Eisenhower promoted equality in the federal arena—desegregating Washington, DC, overseeing the integration of the military, and promoting minority rights in federal contracts. Supreme Court, by an 8 to 1 vote, outlawed the white primary, which, by excluding blacks from participating in the Democratic Party primary in southern states, had effectively disenfranchised them since the early 1900s.Sworn in to the United States Senate on January 3, 1967, Edward Brooke of Massachusetts (second from right) became the first black Senator since 1881. A decade later, the high court under Chief Justice Earl Warren handed down a unanimous decision in Brown v.Yet while they were determined, energetic, and impassioned, there were too few African Americans in Congress to drive a policy agenda. Black Members had different legislative styles, different personalities, and disagreed as to the best method to achieve civil rights advances.Some followed the party line while others took their cues from activists outside Congress.Consequently, their uncoordinated and sporadic actions mitigated their potential effect.At key moments, some were excluded from the process or were inexplicably absent.In no uncertain terms, the court required that representation in federal and state legislatures be based substantially on population. Carr upheld lawsuits that challenged districts apportioned to enforce voting discrimination against minorities. Sanders invalidated Georgia’s county unit voting system, giving rise to the concept “one man, one vote.” Two decisions in 1964, Wesberry v. In Reynolds the Supreme Court solidified the “one man, one vote” concept in an 8 to 1 decision that expressly linked the Fourteenth Amendment’s equal protection clause to the guarantee that each citizen had equal weight in the election of state legislators.Howard Smith of Virginia, chairman of the House Rules Committee, routinely used his influential position to thwart civil rights legislation.