Sex And Gender Essays
Part of the resistance is to the framing of women as primarily victims of violence rather than change agents in global politics. Another troubling aspect of this frame is how it can neglect to consider the prevalence of sexual violence before and after times of conflict.
One common assumption about sexual and gender-based violence is that it is about sex -- that is, sexual desire or attraction. This is critical to understand when it comes to finding ways to respond and prevent this violence.
Another assumption is that men are only perpetrators of sexual violence, while a growing body of literature highlights boys’ and men’s experiences as of such violence. Shepherd write about the danger of “absent presences in our analysis” when it comes to men and sexual and gender-based violence.
Sexual harassment between same-gender peers is also a concern.
Yet such high-profile attention to wartime sexual violence presents challenges as well.
For example, some feminist international relations scholars find the new “rape as a weapon of war” narrative that has gained much media attention incomplete or even unhelpful. Parkinson about the language of sexual violence as a “weapon of war” explains, “Narratives that focus on a narrow subset of sexual violence -- strategic rapes, with rhetorically convenient perpetrators and victims -- are powerful but dangerous.” When those assumptions minimize or erase the agency of survivors of sexual and gender-based violence, it can hinder any efforts to move toward community-based solutions.
Since the 2000 passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, such violence has drawn much more attention, even leading to the establishment of the Centre for Women, Peace and Security at the London School of Economics.
This center came out of the Preventing Sexual Violence initiative championed in 2015 by former U. Foreign Minister William Hague and the special envoy for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Angelina Jolie.