Research Paper On Recess
To facilitate independent reliability ratings, data assessors were instructed not to discuss frequency counts with other raters, however coordinated their data collection to ensure they conducted their observations at the same time and in the same direction (i.e., counts all took place left to right to control for natural momentary changes in play).
Observations for boys and girls were coded separately.
Stellino and Sinclair  found that children (N = 444; 3rd–5th graders; 49% female) from a suburban Rocky Mountain region of the USA reported running (79.5%) and talking with friends (60.8%) as the most common activities at recess.
However, self-report of activities can be prone to selection or retrieval biases, and Sinclair and Stellino  further suggested that this tool may be adaptable to an observational form of measurement.
An inductive content analysis of children’s type of play and activity engagement during recess was conducted to categorize activities.
The different types of activities children engaged in during recess were measured using an observational form of the ADL-PP .The American Academy of Pediatrics  has asserted that in the United States school-based recess not only provides an environment for health enhancing physical activity (PA), but also confers benefits for social development, cognitive functioning, and improved classroom behavior.Yet, results of observational research show that high levels of fighting and conflict can occur during recess, particularly in schools serving high levels of socially disadvantaged students [3, 4].Activities that were redundant were combined into a singular category (e.g., straight slide, tube slide, curly slide, were all coded into slide).Next categories of activities were coded into higher order groupings (e.g., slide was coded into jungle gym).Based on these premises, we used a modified version of the ADL-PP to assess the reliability and validity of an observational measure of children’s play patterns.Data in the current study were collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA from 2014 to 2017.Over the course of observations, 80 different activities were recorded including those within the original ADL-PP and those marked in the ‘other’ category.Aside from the ADL-PP, observers recorded whether or not an intervention was present on the playground.Reliability data were collected during the winter and spring seasons.A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to examine differences in play and activity patterns between genders, and between schools implementing recess interventions (e.g., structured play environment) and schools with no recess intervention.