Research Paper Artificial Intelligence
This two-month workshop was organized by John Mc Carthy, Marvin Minsky, Claude Shannon, and Nathaniel Rochester and included as participants Trenchard More from Princeton, Arthur Samuel from IBM, Ray Solomonoff and Oliver Selfridge from MIT, and Allen Newell and Herbert Simon from Carnegie Tech, all of whom played fundamental roles in the development of AI.
The Dartmouth workshop is considered the official birthplace of AI as a field, and it provided significant advances from previous work.
These books demonstrated that complex networks could resolve the logical problems (e.g., X‑OR) that early perceptrons could not resolve, and allowed networks to resolve many new problems.
This new impulse of AI research resulted in the development of new approaches to AI during the late 1980s and 1990s, such as the subsymbolic approaches of evolutionary computing with evolutionary programming and genetic algorithms, behavior-based robotics, artificial life, and the development of the symbolic Bayesian networks.
On the other hand, psychologists could benefit from the AI techniques and tools to develop further their own discipline using AI tools such as modeling and simulation of theories, expert systems in diagnosis and organization, and interactive techniques in education, just to mention a few.
AI has much to learn from humans because we are the best model of intelligent behavior we know, and because many AI machines will have to interact with us.
However, artificial neural networks became interesting again through what became known as the connectionism movement, largely due to two books discussing parallel distributed processing published by Rumelhart and Mc Clelland (1986).
For example, around 2500 BCE in Egypt, citizens and peregrines turned to oracles (statues with priests hidden inside) for advice. (Rossum’s Universal Robots), which opened in London in 1923, coined the word “robot.” Shortly after, the very popular science fiction movie Metropolis, by Fritz Lang (1927), had a robot character (Maria) that played a decisive role in the plot of the movie.
It seems that the desire to build machines that behave intelligently has always been a part of human history.
Toward the end of the Middle Ages, clockmakers helped build devices that tried to mimic human and animal behavior.
Supposedly, in one test, it flew a distance of 200 meters (however, once it fell to the ground, it could not take off again).