Proper Form Test Critical Thinking
(intro music) Hello, I'm Paul Henne and I'm a philosophy graduate student at Duke University. Do I mean to say that your conclusion, or that all of the premises and the conclusion, are true?
If he's really shy and[br]rarely goes to parties, then it's probable that he[br]won't be at tonight's party.
The statements doing the supporting are called "premises," and the statements being supported are called "conclusions." Validity, in the sense that I'm talking about it, applies to deductive arguments. Validity, then, isn't a property of statements or anything of the like. Well, suppose that you make the following argument, and here I'll use "P"s to stand for "premises" and I'll use a "C" to stand for the conclusion. When an argument is valid in this sense, we say that the premises entail the conclusion. They can, however, be valid or invalid, as well as other things.
And, if an argument is valid, then if its premises are true, its conclusion is true. Again, although the truth of the premises is undefined, we have a valid argument.
She's given you two statements, "Monty's really shy" and[br]"Monty rarely goes to parties," which together comprise[br]a reason for believing that Monty won't be at the party.
The statements that are the reason, we call the argument's premises.