Problem Solving Process In Management The Dream Essay

In general, the situation is one not previously encountered, or where at least a specific solution from past experiences is not known.In contrast, decision making is a selection process where one of two or more possible solutions is chosen to reach a desired goal.

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The recent transition to the information age has focused attention on the processes of problem solving and decision making and their improvement (e.g., Nickerson, Perkins, & Smith, 1985; Stice, 1987; Whimbey & Lochhead, 1982).In fact, Gagne (1974, 1984) considers the strategies used in these processes to be a primary outcome of modern education.Although there is increasing agreement regarding the prescriptive steps to be used in problem solving, there is less consensus on specific techniques to be employed at each step in the problem-solving/decision-making process.Most models of problem solving and decision making include at least four phases (e.g., Bransford & Stein, 1984; Dewey, 1933; Polya, 1971): 1) an Input phase in which a problem is perceived and an attempt is made to understand the situation or problem; 2) a Processing phase in which alternatives are generated and evaluated and a solution is selected; 3) an Output phase which includes planning for and implementing the solution; and 4) a Review phase in which the solution is evaluated and modifications are made, if necessary.Most researchers describe the problem-solving/decision-making process as beginning with the perception of a gap and ending with the implementation and evaluation of a solution to fill that gap.The steps in both problem solving and decision making are quite similar.In fact, the terms are sometimes used interchangeably.They will exhibit a tendency to develop new, original solutions rather than to use what has worked previously.Individuals with a thinking preference will tend to use logic and analysis during problem solving.Another strategy would be to consider first the problem-solving process and then to integrate individual preferences or patterns within this process.This second strategy is the perspective of this paper.

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