# Presenting Data In Research Papers Penguin Writing Paper

If confidence interval is too wide, this means that the precision of the estimate is small.

Confidence intervals may be used to assess the difference between two estimates.

The most common errors occurring in To improve the quality of data analysis and reporting in manuscripts submitted for possible publication, the increasing number of journals have issued statistical guidelines and have also introduced the statistical editors who are responsible for statistical peer-review (2-4)..

It should however be made clear that this article by no means provides a substitute for a comprehensive textbook in biostatistics.

For example, if authors wish to compare two areas under the curve (AUC) for two parameters, it needs to be checked if their confidence intervals overlap.

In case those two confidence intervals overlap, it may be concluded that there is no statistically significant difference in the AUC for those two parameters at the corresponding level of significance relative to the confidence interval.

Their AUC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals are 0.78 (0.63-0.89) and 0.99 (0.80-0.99).

When necessary and applicable, the authors need to make sure to provide the measure of confidence and P value for all their estimates.

This is especially important when presenting estimates of diagnostic accuracy, odds ratios, relative risks, regression analysis results etc.

The improper use of statistical methods is unethical because it leads to biased results and incorrect conclusions.

Moreover, this is a substantial waste of time and money.

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