Life In 999 A Grim Struggle Essay Science Of Generosity Dissertation

The civilian-soldier distinction weakened with state-sanctioned repression of dissenters and anti-imperial revolts.Mass violence permeated societies and expanded the categories of expendable lives even if humanitarian mobilization salved some wounds.

Of course, even where divorce was allowed by law it was often out of reach of many couples for financial reasons or for reasons of stigma.More poignantly still, the war as a whole left an estimated six million orphans across the world, one million each in the cases of France and Germany alone.In some parts of Europe, especially in the poorer rural peripheries, women might well have been already used to a pattern of seasonal migration by menfolk.As well as being an economic reality, “profiteers” were also a symptom of a sense of unfairness.In a fifth and final section we consider the subtle ways in which the transgressive violence of the First World War, as Heather Jones terms it, in turn altered norms concerning the punishment of military indiscipline, anti-imperial agitation, and revolution.A fear of british soldiers returning to terrorize their women and children was recurrent in 1919-20 and some indeed acted like this, as Maureen Healy shows in the case of Vienna.Nonetheless, even taking into account other forms of informal or de facto separation, couples (and their families) generally lived with varying degrees of contentment in reunited households, their circumstances varying with economic resources and the degree of physical or psychological injury inflicted upon the returning soldier.Wartime humanitarianism provided a counterpoint to these trends.Nonetheless, with its brute egalitarianism, the war coarsened norms and implicitly marked out categories of expendable lives.Urban or rural, not all husbands were loving and responsible or were equally missed.For the war’s duration at least, fathers were generally absent for long periods, amidst the continuing fear that they might not come back at all or come back incapacitated in some way.

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