Goffman Interaction Ritual Essays On Face-To-Face Behavior
Goffman did not develop a theoretical approach that would explain all parts of the social world, but he developed an analysis of the interaction order social situations or environments in which two or more individuals are physically in one anothers presence (Goffman Reader, p. These are the situations where we spend much or most of our life in face-to-face activities involving others, whether these be everyday social situations, situations within organized structures (jobs, school), or unusual social situations (accidents, weddings, funerals).In addition to the ordinary situations of everyday life, Goffman also examined unusual situations such as prisons and asylums, total institutions, using these to show how individuals used various means (many unauthorized) to maintain their sense of selfhood.cannot decline a polite handshake tacit cooperation (p. 37) Goffman, Erving, Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Bahavior, Garden City, New York, Anchor Books, 1967.29) meet shared but different objectives tact to help self and others tacit agreement to do business thru language of hint (p. Decides (conscious or unconscious) how to behave Rules of maintaining conversation and taking proper place in interaction (p. Goffman, Erving, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Garden City, New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1959.30) At the same time, Goffman does consider various aspects of the player, by focussing on the emotions of the individual embarrassment, shame, pride, etc. Lemert, Charles and Ann Branaman, editors, The Goffman Reader, Malden, Massachusetts, Blackwell Publishers, 1997.so that he has developed a somewhat better explanation of the inner aspect of the self than have some other writers. 31-3 is the fragility and limits of the self, and how the interaction order has certain mechanisms, check and balances (p. But the actor is not just an individual face necessarily involves others and social interaction, so the focus for the social actor and his or her social self is always on the nature of the
Two “basic components” of etiquette are deference and demeanour, which in Goffman’s model are tokens for an individual’s place in the social hierarchy and for the individual’s fitness to that place, respectively (77).Each of the six essays in the collection explores the phenomenon from a different perspective, through its own analytical and terminological model.The phenomenon of face-to-face interaction is the running thread which pulls it all together.While the actor may express confidence and assurance (p.8) when in face, when in wrong face or out of face, the actor may feel dissonance within himself or herself, or may feel shame, inferiority, or may have other bad feelings.Beside these cooperative aspects, which derive from a strongly interactional stance (144), Goffman depicts social life as an anxious, embattled experience in which face is constantly under threat and face-saving is the quintessential social skill (31).In fact, four out of the six essays deal with different levels of breakdown of social ritual, from everyday embarrassment to psychiatric disorders, with a view to demonstrating that ritualised interaction is the backbone of social order.Following Goffmans observation that there is a certain order and continuity to social interaction, he begins to examine the ways that such interaction proceeds, considering the procedures associated with the interaction order.There are various goals that the actor has gaining an income, achieving friendship, pursuing spiritual values, or pursuing various personal emotional goals and face-saving is not the objective, but rather part of the code or rules that actors use in social interaction.Interestingly, by exploring different analytical perspectives on the same phenomena, Goffman compellingly shows how the psychosocial mechanics of face-to-face interaction form the building blocks of social structure.For Goffman, the body is not incidental to the social process, but the very source of “behavioral materials” (1) (glances, gestures, verbal statements, etc.).