Ethics And Critical Thinking Resturant Business Plan
Unfortunately, mere verbal agreement on general moral principles alone will not accomplish important moral ends nor change the world for the better.
Moral principles mean something only when manifested in behavior. Yet to put them into action requires some analysis and insight into the real character of everyday situations.
Paul spells out the implications of this view for the teaching of ethics in literature, science, history, and civics.
He provides a taxonomy of moral reasoning skills and describes an appropriate long term staff development strategy to foster ethics across the curriculum.
The moral thing to do is often a matter of disagreement even among people of good will.In this revised paper, originally published in Educational Leadership (1988), Richard Paul argues that ethics ought to be taught in school, but only in conjunction with critical thinking.Without critical thinking at the heart of ethical instruction, indoctrination rather than ethical insight results.Given this universal blind spot in human nature, the only safe and justified basis for ethical education in the public schools is one precisely designed to rule out bias in favor of the substantive beliefs and conclusions of any particular group, whether religious, political, communal, or national.Indeed since one of our most fundamental responsibilities as educators is to educate rather than indoctrinate our students to help them cultivate skills, insights, knowledge, and traits of mind and character that transcend narrow party and religious affiliations and help them to think beyond biased representations of the world we must put special safeguards into moral education that prevent indoctrination.Early everyone recognizes that even young children have moral feelings and ideas, make moral inferences and judgments, and develop an outlook on life which has moral significance for good or ill.Nearly everyone also gives at least lip service to a universal common core of general ethical principles — for example, that it is morally wrong to cheat, deceive, exploit, abuse, harm, or steal from others, that everyone has a moral responsibility to respect the rights of others, including their freedom and well-being, to help those most in need of help, to seek the common good and not merely their own self-interest and egocentric pleasures, to strive in some way to make this world more just and humane.One and the same act is often morally praised by some, condemned by others.Furthermore, even when we do not face the morally conflicting claims of others, we often have our own inner conflicts as to what, morally speaking, we should do in some particular situation.Because of complexities such as these, ethically motivated persons must learn the art of self-critique, of moral self-examination, to become attuned to the pervasive everyday pitfalls of moral judgment: moral intolerance, self-deception, and uncritical conformity.These human foibles cause pseudo-morality, the systematic misuse of moral terms and principles in the guise of moral action and righteousness.