Essay Perception Self

Each participant was identified as having well or poorly defined prior attitudes toward being an environmentalist or conservationist.Participants then completed one of two versions of a questionnaire designed to bring to mind either past pro-ecology behaviors or past anti-ecology behaviors.In 2006, Tiffany Ito and her colleagues conducted two studies to investigate if changes in facial expression can trigger changes in racial bias.Participants were surreptitiously induced to smile through holding a pencil in their mouth while viewing photographs of unfamiliar black or white males or performed no somatic configuration while viewing the photographs (Study 1 only).Guadagno and her fellow experimenters did a study in 2010 addressing the recruitment of new members by terrorist organization via the internet.In addition to looking at how such an organization might influence its targets to support more extreme ideologies (primarily through simple requests gradually increasing to larger commitments–an example of the foot-in-the-door technique), the authors looked at how "the new converts may form increasingly radical attitudes to be consistent with their increasingly radical behavior." Self-perception theory, then, has strong ties to social identity and social influence in this scenario.Subjects listened to a tape of a man enthusiastically describing a tedious peg-turning task.

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Results revealed a spreading attitude effect; people made to smile (unconsciously) at pictures of black males showed less implicit prejudice than those made to smile at pictures of white males.

Furthermore, participants scored higher on aggression during frown trials than during smile trials, and scored higher on elation, surgency, and social affection factors during smile trials than during frown ones.

In other words, a person's facial expression can act as a cause of an emotional state, rather than an effect; instead of smiling because they feel happy, a person can make themselves feel happy by smiling.

") reported themselves as being much more pro-environment than those in the anti-ecology condition ("Do you always recycle? Bringing to mind certain past behaviors affected what people believed their attitudes to be.

Evidence for the self-perception theory has also been seen in real life situations.

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  1. Powdered Chlorella vulgaris biomass was treated with hydrothermal treatment (Hydrothermal Liquefaction, HTL) in a reactor between 40-350 o C at holding times of 30 and 60 min.