Essay Articles Confederation Weaknesses
Their hope was to create a stronger national government.
Civil disobedience resulted in coercive and quelling measures, such as the passage of what the colonials referred to as the intolerable acts in the English Parliament, and armed skirmishes which resulted in dissidents being proclaimed rebels.The committee met frequently, and chairman John Dickinson presented their results to the Congress on July 12, 1776.Afterward, there were long debates on such issues as state sovereignty, the exact powers to be given to Congress, whether to have a judiciary, western land claims and voting procedures.It was approved, after much debate (between July 1776 and November 1777), by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, and sent to the states for ratification.The Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states.It would be two years before the Maryland General Assembly became satisfied that the various states would follow through, and voted to ratify.During this time, Congress observed the Articles as its de facto frame of government.To further complicate work on the constitution, Congress was forced to leave Philadelphia twice, for Baltimore, Maryland in the winter of 1776, and later for Lancaster then York, Pennsylvania in the fall of 1777, to evade advancing British troops. The final draft of the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was completed on November 15, 1777.Consensus was achieved by: including language guaranteeing that each state retained its sovereignty, leaving the matter of western land claims in the hands of the individual states, including language stating that votes in Congress would be en bloc by state, and establishing a unicameral legislature with limited and clearly delineated powers.Foreign courts needed to have American grievances laid before them persuasively in a "manifesto" which could also reassure them that the Americans would be reliable trading partners.Without such a declaration, Paine concluded, "[t]he custom of all courts is against us, and will be so, until, by an independence, we take rank with other nations." Beyond improving their existing association, the records of the Second Continental Congress show that the need for a declaration of independence was intimately linked with the demands of international relations.