Definition Of Problem Solving Method

Cognitive processing aimed at figuring out how to achieve a goal is called problem solving.

In problem solving, the problem solver seeks to devise a method for transforming a problem from its current state into a desired state when a solution is not immediately obvious to the problem solver.

This is two cents less per stick than butter at Vons.

If you need to buy 4 sticks of butter, how much will you pay at Vons?

For example, "3 5 = ___" might be a problem for a six-year-old child who reasons, "Let's see. That makes 4 plus 4, and I know that 4 plus 4 is 8." However, this equation is not a problem for an adult who knows the correct answer. It is customary to distinguish between routine and nonroutine problems.

In solution planning, the problem solver may break the problem into parts, such as: "First add 0.02 to 0.65, then multiply the result by 4." In solution executing, the problem solver carries out the plan: 0.02 0.65 =0.67, 0.67 × 4 = 2.68.Rote instructional methods promote retention (the ability to solve problems that are identical or highly similar to those presented in instruction), but not problem solving transfer (the ability to apply what was learned to novel problems).For example, in 1929, Alfred Whitehead used the term inert knowledge to refer to learning that cannot be used to solve novel problems.Given water jars of size 21, 127, and 3 units and an unlimited supply of water, how can you obtain exactly 100 units of water?" This is a well-defined problem because the given state is clearly specified (you have empty jars of size 21, 127, and 3), the goal state is clearly specified (you want to get 100 units of water in one of the jars), and the allowable operators are clearly specified (you can fill and pour according to specific procedures).The definition of problem solving covers a broad range of human cognitive activities, including educationally relevant cognition–figuring out how to manage one's time, writing an essay on a selected topic, summarizing the main point of a textbook section, solving an arithmetic word problem, or determining whether a scientific theory is valid by conducting experiments.A problem occurs when a problem solver has a goal but initially does not know how to achieve the goal.It takes sixty days for the lake to be completely covered with water lilies. " In this problem, the problem solver must invent a solution method based on working backwards from the last day.Based on this method, the problem solver can ask what the lake would look like on the day before the last day, and conclude that the lake is half covered on the fifty-ninth day. It is also customary to distinguish between well-defined and ill-defined problems.For example, for most adults the problem "589 × 45 = ___" is a routine problem if they know the procedure for multicolumn multiplication.Routine problems are sometimes called exercises, and technically do not fit the definition of problem stated above.

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