Critical Thinking Textbook Pdf Nz Maths Problem Solving
111 Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Information? moo86677_fm_v 188 192 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages vi CONTENTS The Subjectivist Fallacy The Relativist Fallacy 194 195 Two Wrongs Make a Right 196 Red Herring/Smoke Screen Recap 197 199 Exercises 200 Chapter 7 More Fallacies The Ad Hominem Fallacy 211 211 The Personal Attack Ad Hominem 212 The Inconsistency Ad Hominem 212 The Circumstantial Ad Hominem 214 Poisoning the Well 214 The Genetic Fallacy 214 “Positive Ad Hominem Fallacies” 215 Straw Man 215 False Dilemma 217 The Perfectionist Fallacy 220 The Line-Drawing Fallacy 220 Slippery Slope 221 Misplacing the Burden of Proof Begging the Question Recap 222 226 228 Exercises 229 Chapter 8 Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic Categorical Claims 254 256 Venn Diagrams 257 Translation into Standard Form The Square of Opposition 263 Three Categorical Operations 258 265 Conversion 265 Obversion 266 Contraposition 266 Categorical Syllogisms 273 The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity moo86677_fm_vi 275 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Categorical Syllogisms with Unstated Premises Real-Life Syllogisms 279 The Rules Method of Testing for Validity 283 Recap vii 278 285 Additional Exercises 286 Chapter 9 Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols 297 298 Claim Variables 298 Truth Tables 298 Symbolizing Compound Claims 304 “If” and “Only If” 308 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions “Unless” 312 “Either . .” 312 310 Truth-Functional Arguments 314 The Truth-Table Method 314 The Short Truth-Table Method Deductions 318 322 Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns 323 Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences 328 Conditional Proof 334 Recap 338 Additional Exercises 338 Chapter 10 Three Kinds of Inductive Arguments 346 Arguing from the General to the Specific (Inductive Syllogisms) 347 Arguing from the Specific to the General (Inductive Generalizing) 348 Examples 351 Inductive Arguments from Analogy 353 Attacking the Analogy 358 Random Variation, Error Margins, and Confidence Levels 358 Everyday Inductive Arguments 360 Informal Error-Margin and Confidence-Level Indicators Fallacies in Inductive Reasoning Illicit Inductive Conversions moo86677_fm_vii 360 361 363 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages viii CONTENTS Analogies: The Rest of the Story Polls: Problems and Pitfalls 364 366 Self-Selected Samples 366 Slanted Questions 368 Playing by the Numbers Recap 368 371 Exercises 373 Chapter 11 Causal Explanation Two Kinds of Explanations 385 386 Physical Causal Explanations 386 Behavioral Causal Explanations 387 Explanatory Adequacy: A Relative Concept 389 The Importance of Testability 389 Nontestable Explanations 389 Circular Explanations 392 Unnecessary Complexity 392 Forming Hypotheses 393 The Method of Difference 393 The Method of Agreement 394 Causal Mechanisms and Background Knowledge The Best Diagnosis Method 397 General Causal Claims 396 399 Confirming Causal Hypotheses 400 Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments 400 Alternative Methods of Testing Causal Hypotheses in Human Populations 402 Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies 402 Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies 403 Experiments on Animals 403 Mistakes in Causal Reasoning 404 Confusing Effect with Cause in Medical Tests Overlooking Statistical Regression 406 Proof by Absence of Disproof 409 Appeal to Anecdote 409 Confusing Explanations with Excuses 410 Causation in the Law moo86677_fm_viii 405 410 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages CONTENTS Recap ix 413 Exercises 413 Chapter 12 Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning Value Judgments 437 Moral Versus Nonmoral 438 Two Principles of Moral Reasoning 438 Moral Principles 440 Deriving Specific Moral Value Judgments Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning Consequentialism 441 Duty Theory/Deontologism Moral Relativism 445 Religious Relativism 445 Religious Absolutism 446 Virtue Ethics 446 Moral Deliberation Legal Reasoning 436 440 441 443 447 456 Justifying Laws: Four Perspectives Aesthetic Reasoning 457 460 Eight Aesthetic Principles 460 Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value 462 Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth 464 Why Reason Aesthetically?
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This phenomenon requires a lot of replacement to keep names familiar to students cropping up in the book from time to time.
(After sneaking Paris Hilton’s name into the eighth edition three times, we were delighted to see her still in the news—make that “news.” She gets a photo this time.) There are still some important names from the past—Ronald Reagan is now moving into mythology, but at least the name is familiar—and of course not all references require familiarity on the part of the reader.
As we have done from the beginning, we try here to present this material in realistic contexts that are familiar to and understandable by today’s students.
moo86677_fm_xii 6/23/08 PM Revised Pages PREFACE xiii Flexibility and Feedback At well over five hundred pages, this is a long book, and we’re pretty sure it’s a rare instructor who tries to cover all the material in it in depth. In fact, there are probably a hundred different ways to teach a critical thinking course out of this book—and none of them the “right” way or the “wrong” way.