Critical Thinking Argument Examples Business Plan Proposal Sample Pdf
This everyday conception of argument can cause confusion at times when you try to identify arguments.Sometimes students conclude that a specific passage is not and argument because they agree with the premise(s) and conclusion.
You should also note that a single sentence may include more than one proposition, For example, the sentence, "Since smoking is bad for your health, you should not do it," includes two propositions: "Smoking is bad for your health." and "You should not do it." "Joseph went to the store and Barbara went to the beach," includes more than one claim.Copi, in his Introduction to Logic, defines an argument as a "group of propositions of which one, the conclusion, is claimed to follow from the others, which are premises." In his book, Critical Thinking, Richard Epstein provides the following definition of argument: " An argument is a collection of statements, one of which is called the conclusion whose truth the argument attempts to establish; the others are called the premises, which are supposed to lead to, or support, or convince that the conclusion is true." To understand "argument," it necessary to understand the terms, "proposition" or "statement," the purpose of arguments, and the relationship of premises and conclusions in an argument.Warning: The different meanings of "argument" I made reference earlier to the everyday understanding of argument as a shouting match, dispute, or quarrel, and indicated that our definition of argument is different.For now, note that this proposition is NOT saying that both events (Andre comes to the party and Susan will stay at home.) will occur.Rather it is making a single proposition about the relationship of the two parts, namely that if one thing happens the other will happen too. It's just his or her opinion." The statement above is one commonly made by students in a critical thinking class.The word "argument" is often used in everyday language to refer to a heated dispute, a quarrel, a shouting match.Please take note that we will not be using argument in this sense throughout this course.Our views about religion, the best form of government, what constitutes the virtuous life, the meaning of works of art, literature, and music, can all be classified as "opinions." If such statements are not propositions, then they are not true or false, and there is no need to offer reasons in support of them.In this course, we will not dismiss beliefs which people accept, though without certainly, as mere opinions.We will study valid and invalid forms of arguments, strong and weak arguments, causal arguments, analogical arguments, and arguments based on generalizations.The significance of arguments to critical thinking makes it important for all of us to understand the term, and its relationship to some of the basic language of the critical thinking course.