Crediting Quotes In An Essay

Just as the educational experts described above do not directly teach students, the experts in this unit do not directly attend to patients.

That is the role of the staff nurses, who, like teachers, have their own “hierarchy of seniority” (p. The roles of the experts include employing unit nurses and overseeing the care of special patients (nurse manager), teaching and otherwise integrating new personnel into the unit (clinical nurse specialist and nurse clinician), and policy-making (nurse clinician).

You do not need to cite a source for material considered common knowledge: General common knowledge is factual information considered to be in the public domain, such as birth and death dates of well-known figures, and generally accepted dates of military, political, literary, and other historical events.

In general, factual information contained in multiple standard reference works can usually be considered to be in the public domain.

The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase.

The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions.

Information: If a piece of information isn’t common knowledge (see below), you need to provide a source.

The method below is not only a way to create a paraphrase but also a way to understand a difficult text.

Consider the following passage from Love and Toil (a book on motherhood in London from 1870 to 1918), in which the author, Ellen Ross, puts forth one of her major arguments: You may need to go through this process several times to create a satisfactory paraphrase.

If all these phrases were in red, the paraphrase would look much like the “patchwork” example.

The difference is that the phrases in the legitimate paraphrase are all precise, economical, and conventional designations that are part of the shared language within the nursing discipline (in the too-close paraphrases, they’re red only when used within a longer borrowed phrase).

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