Comparative Religious Essays Latest Research Papers On Software Quality Assurance

At the same time, the imperial court was able to control institutionalized Buddhism and Daoism through a policy of licensing and regulations that limited their activities in popular society.

I have discussed this interface as a translucent canopy in which the forms and shapes, but not the details, of popular activities could be made out.

This was possible in part because different groups of elites also participated in several different spheres of religious and community activities, thus giving popular culture considerable cover.

In an earlier study of the Guandi cult, I tried to show how the imperial state sought to appropriate the popular and apotheosized hero of the Three Kingdoms era (220-280) as an orthodox figure elevated to the status of the highest of gods and represented as carrying the classics in one hand, even as popular lore told martial stories of his bandit-like exploits and vows of brotherhood and loyalty.

As a consequence, men lost their reverence for the spirits, the spirits violated the rules of men, and natural calamities arose.

Hence the successor of Shaohao, Quanxu, charged Chong, Governor of the South, to handle the affairs of heaven in order to determine the proper places of the spirits, and Li, Governor of Fire, to handle the affairs of the Earth in order to determine the proper places of men. Chang notes that this myth is the most significant reference to shamanism and its central role in ancient Chinese politics.

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