Civil War Thesis Black Women Essayists

Kaplan posits that the origins of the Yugoslavian Civil War are found in the existence of ‘ethnic ancient hatreds’ between the warring groups based on ethnic identity (1993, 3).

Accordingly, Realist literature concerning the origins of the war perceive it as a tragic result of security-seeking groups misperceiving each other’s intent rather than a conflict resulting from hostility based on antagonistic ethnic identity (Ibid,1993, 30).The causes of the Yugoslavian Civil War, a succession of ongoing conflicts within the former Socialist federal republic between 1991-1999, is a much-debated subject within contemporary academia (Cederman ., 2009, 99).In his text ‘Balkan Ghosts’, journalist Robert Kaplan attributes its origins to ‘ancient hatreds’, the central tenet of Primordialism which hypothesises that conflict is the inevitable result of perennial, irreconcilable hostile feelings existing between ethnic groups in a heterogeneous society (1993, 7).Thus, Kaplan’s central thesis is that the origins of the Yugoslav Civil Wars’ conflict lay in ingrained religious differences between the Serbs and Croats; he extends this premise to the preceding wars in Bosnia and Kosovo.In his adoption of Primordialism’s thesis to explain the primary causes of the Yugoslav conflict Kaplan receives criticism across academia concerning his reliance on reductionist accounts of history and stereotypical perceptions of culture in the Balkans (Kushi ,2016).Despite the hostile political rhetoric of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia in the run-up to the conflict, ethnic-groups continued to attempt power-sharing agreements.This phenomenon continued into the conflict, demonstrated in the 1991 Karadjordjevo Agreement between Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic and Francis Tudjman signifying the division of Bosnia and a power-sharing agreement between Croatia and Serbia (World Heritage Encyclopaedia, 2016).Primordialists assert that ethnicity is an objective identity- the result of cultural beliefs and traditions natural to one’s ethnicity- which are singular and fixed with distinct social boundaries (Bayar, 2009, 1642).The existence of such an ineffable bond between individuals defines them against other groups, with the result that they behave in a unitary manner during times of crisis (Ibid, 1659; Williams, 2015, 147).This criticism is true of Kaplan’s work, his assertion that the Serb-Croat conflict was the inevitable result of inherent cultural disparities ‘which perfectly mirror[ed] the process of history’ (1993, 8) is predicated on subjective cultural stereotypes with no historical or scientific foundation.As Fearon and Laitin observe, Primordialism is often utilised by journalists seeking to infuse a ‘romantic dimension’ into the study of ethnicity (2000, 849; Stack, 1983, 2; Kushi, 2014).

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