Black Women Shaping Feminist Theory Essay Alternative Fuels For Automobiles Research Paper

In other words, it argues that women (1991), the preface to which is translated in Haase-Dubosc’s volume.They emphasize less the existence (or relevance) of women’s writings—to which the number of entries in both volumes already testify—but rather the marginalization of these writings in traditional histories of literature, when they are not altogether caricatured.This dual relationship that links French academics with both feminism and its colonial history would appear to explain the belated interest for in issues of postcolonial feminism and the exigency compelling the ‘New French Thought’.This ambivalent relationship that links France with the ‘Third-World Woman’ and the cliché it continues to convey lies at the heart (or at least in the agenda) of two recent French essays on South Asian feminism: Danielle Haase-Dubosc In the first essay, the relationship between France and Indian feminism is justified by the conditions under which the volume was produced: an international conference on French, Indian, and Russian research on the ‘Woman issue’.uch has been written (Kiswar 1985, Chatterjee 1993, Sarkar 1999 & 2001) on the ambiguity linked to the evaluation of the social, familial, cultural, political, historical, and especially symbolic role of women in South Asia: how should one interpret Indian patriarchy when the familial and social subjugation of women stands in contrast to symbolic figures of veiled woman’ depicted as the victim of traditional barbarism?And how should one understand the figure of the sacrificial female warrior who inhabits the Indian literary landscape along with the docile housewife embodied by Sita?Whereas both are inextricably linked to the ‘postcolonial issue’ the relationships they maintain with it are distinct: if the issue of patriarchy understands ‘postcolonial’ in terms of domination versus submission, the issue of the representation of women understands postcolonialism through its as a culture of contacts and a relationship with diversity, in Homi Bhabha’s use of the term.7 Here is a crucial dimension: given that the genesis of postcolonial studies lies in the cultural field and that the first symptoms of the ‘postcolonial situation’ were located in literature, it is essential to identify the link between gender and postcolonialism in cultural expression, and not only in social or political expression.

(1995): an ambitious investigation of the Thugs (bandits who strangled their victims) that questioned the representation of the Other in the colonial discourse.’ (1994 [1988]), nonetheless raises a crucial question, which could suggest practical implications for Spivak’s convoluted line of questioning: is a history of women as , paves the way for an alternative (feminist) reading of history: ‘What is presented here is in the nature of an exploration, an attempt to communicate an experience of partition through those whose voices have hitherto been absent in any retelling of it: women who were destitute in one way or another by the event’ (1998: xi).‘Experience’, ‘voice’, ‘absence’, ‘retelling’, ‘destitution’: these are the keywords for a historiographical project aiming to give If the ‘history from below’ of subaltern studies aims at this rereading ‘against the grain’ of the colonial (and postcolonial) history of India by highlighting the ‘daily forms of resistance’, it suggests above all a ‘redefinition’ of the archive itself: wherever the traditional archive is insufficient (particularly concerning women’s history), recourse to ‘different’ sources—in which the ‘subaltern voice’ can be heard2—is necessary.In other words, as Stephens writes, where women are concerned, ‘In this discourse, the parallelism established between colonial oppression and male oppression is crucial;—not as a collusion, but in the process of their reification of the Other, the Other which is condemned to be muted, to be ‘spoken for’.The ‘postcolonial feminism’ advocated by feminist theorists such as Spivak, Deepika Bahri, and Chandra Mohanty thus requires the necessary acknowledgement of the heterogeneity of women (and not The representation of the ‘Third-World Woman’ raises two issues: the essencialization of ‘womanhood’ and the homogeneity at the heart of this fiction of womanhood on the one hand, and the identification and definition of patriarchy on the other.It has a chronological orientation that may, admittedly, bear witness to the evolution and transformations in feminist struggles.(1887), also recently ‘rediscovered’ by two feminist historians, Uma Chakravarti and Meera Kosambi (1998); and Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya (1903-1988), nationalist, activist, and essayist.Van Woerkens highlights the gradual emergence of women’s issues onto the Indian cultural and political landscape from the beginning of the reformist movements until Independence as well as, significantly, the fragile conjunction between writing and gaining a voice.The chapter describes Ramabai Ranade’s gradual move towards the subjective ‘I’ of what appears to be a young, immature, and dependent woman’s hagiography of her husband.‘Decolonizing gender’, in Talpade Mohanty’s words, suggests accepting the diversity promoted by the author, but also implies ‘provincializing Europe’—bears witness to a growing interest in her work.Underlying this interest, however, is the sensitive issue of how France perceives its colonial past and its protective reflex towards contemporary feminist thought, the French roots of which are encroached on by gender studies.

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