Biological Model Of Addiction Essay
Substance use and gambling disorders not only engage the same brain mechanisms, they respond to many of the same approaches to treatment.
Complex conditions that affect reward, reinforcement, motivation, and memory systems of the brain, substance use and gambling disorders are characterized by impaired control over usage; social impairment, involving disruption of everyday activities and relationships; and may involve craving.
And typically, tolerance to the substance increases, as the body adapts to its presence.
Because addiction affects the brain’s executive functions, centered in the prefrontal cortex, individuals who develop an addiction may not be aware that their behavior is causing problems for themselves and others.
Some characteristics, such as a lack of ability to tolerate distress or other strong feelings, have been associated with addiction, but there is no one “addictive personality” type that clearly predicts whether a person will face problems with addiction.
Neuroscientists report that synaptic density is gradually restored.No one way is right for everyone, and there is evidence that the commitment to change is more important than the type of treatment program.Whatever the treatment under consideration, say independent researchers, there are number of features to look for to identify an effective program.Since success tends not to occur all at once, any improvements are considered important signs of progress.Increasingly, programs are available to help those who recognize they have a substance-use problem but are not ready for complete abstinence.Addiction is a condition in which a person engages in the use of a substance or in a behavior for which the rewarding effects provide a compelling incentive to repeatedly pursue the behavior despite detrimental consequences.Addiction may involve the use of substances such as alcohol, inhalants, opioids, cocaine, nicotine, and others, or behaviors such as gambling.There is scientific evidence that the addictive behaviors share key neurobiological features: They intensely involve brain pathways of reward and reinforcement, affecting motivation, which involve the neurotransmitter dopamine.And, in keeping with other highly motivated states, they lead to the pruning of synapses in the prefrontal cortex, home of the brain's highest functions, so that attention is highly focused on cues related to the target substance or activity.Continuing use is typically harmful to relationships and work or school obligations.Another distinguishing feature is that individuals may continue the activity despite physical or psychological harm incurred or exacerbated by use.