Assumptions Critical Thinking

Use critical thinking and argumentation in university contexts to improve academic results 2.

Understand the importance and function of critical thinking in academic culture 3.

An example of an analytical assumption in the sample would be that “larger systemic problems ...

, such as the exclusion of voices and perspectives of racial minorities and working-class populations from environmental policy-making,” caused environmental racism (paragraph 5).

Another is the claim that “ The ’toxic soup’ that has received much public attention is filled with the effluence from the oil and petrochemical industry” (paragraph 4).

Both these assumptions deal with straightforward factual information that can be measured or observed directly. They are based on facts, but they go a step further in making some sort of statement those facts—interpreting them, analyzing them, explaining them, judging or ranking or weighing them.

Often we are not aware of the assumptions we make, and sometimes we make bad assumptions without realizing it.

Identify types of argument, and bias within arguments, in order to better evaluate the strength of arguments 5.

This assumption depends on ideas about what is “fair” that are very difficult, if not impossible, to defend with evidence and reason.

This does not mean they are wrong, just that you are unlikely to convince anyone of them through logical argument.

At that point you assume no further proof is needed.

The trick is knowing when to stop, which points do not need proof.

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