Appearance Essay Good Nature Practical Reason

Ontology – Kant brought together two previously opposed strands of philosophy: Empiricism and Rationalism.– He argued in the 1 – Time & space are thus called ‘pure concepts of the understanding’ and therefore do not really exist (in the noumenal world).– Causality exists in the phenomenal world – the world of empiricism/natural science.But free will exists in the noumenal world and so intentions are not caused by physical/phenomenal things.

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– Kant continues by identifying the summum bonum with the Christian notion of the Kingdom of God.You may be determined to act socially, biologically, even logically: the belief that every effect in the universe must have been caused by something else (causality).– Kant actually believed in both causality and in free will. He divided reality into two: phenomena (appearances) and noumena (things-in-themselves).Ethical Theory – Kant’s ethical theory is first properly devised in his short book, ‘Groundwork of a Metaphysic of Morals’ (GMM) (1785).– Kant is considered a deontologist, which is to say that an action is morally good if its intention, rather than its consequences, was good.– In sum, the summum bonum, which is a result of reason, postulates a necessary harmony between being moral and being happy.This harmony may not be achieved in our lifetime which postulates the immortality of the soul.– The ultimate goal of reason, the highest good, therefore is a combination of virtue and happiness – this Kant calls the summum bonum (Latin for ‘highest good’).– But be careful: the summum bonum is not the reason for being moral – it is rather merely the later goal as a result of being moral.Thus morality implies the immortality of the soul: – Furthermore, Kant argues that, ‘Happiness is the condition of a rational being in the world with whom everything goes according to his wish and will; it rests, therefore, on the harmony of physical nature with his whole end and likewise with the essential determining principle of his will.(ibid.) – Because reason logically dictates that the summum bonum should be achieved, there must be a cause of the harmony of morality and happiness.

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