All Of The Following Are Factors In Political Socialization Except
One of the main resources for studying attitudes toward equal rights of disadvantaged groups is ICCS, which considers tolerance as the degree to which young people support equal rights for different groups in society (Schulz et al. Therefore, previous research has not established whether attitudes toward equal rights are an overall underlying disposition or whether such attitudes vary according to target groups.
Secondly, these studies typically use socioeconomic measures as control variables, with different operationalization, blurring the conceptualization of socioeconomic measures and their potential relationships with egalitarian attitudes.
Two theoretical models have been used to relate attitudes toward equal rights with socioeconomic resources: the competition model and the enlightenment model.
The competition model, also called “labor market competition model” or “threat to status model” (Caro and Schulz ), assumes that the competition for the same social space and resources varies according to an individual’s place in the hierarchy of social status.
Using structural equations and multilevel models, the analysis estimates regression models using a set of measures, with family status being the main independent variable.
From research on adult populations, it is widely known that several political outcomes, such as participation and knowledge, are associated with higher socioeconomic status (Dahl ); this is termed the resources model of political participation.To determine the student’s socioeconomic background, we considered parental occupation, the educational level of the parents, and the number of books in the home; for group characteristics we also incorporated student gender and immigrant background.).The resource model indicates that involvement in political activities is strongly associated with an individual’s social position, that is their educational level, income and/or occupational status, as well as by resources such as time, social skills and money.) found that school-age children of families from lower socioeconomic status had lower expectations of voting in the future.Further, consistency between parent and child attitudes and/or behavior has been observed in several empirical studies (Gidengil et al. Nevertheless, research on political socialization still faces several challenges, among which we identify at least two.The findings are discussed, taking into account current and future political issues associated with migration and demands for equal rights.Equal rights for all groups in society is a founding principle of democratic systems.Nevertheless, it is clear that achieving social equality is an ongoing endeavor throughout the world, especially in challenging times when anti-immigrant attitudes seem to be increasing in several democracies, ethnic conflicts occur, and inequality persists between men and women in labor markets and political representation.In this context, it becomes highly relevant to analyze the extent to which the equal rights of disadvantaged groups are supported by individuals from different societies.) noted, evidence about the links between socioeconomic variables and political preferences highlights the relevance of the socioeconomic context and status in the formation of public opinion.In this sense, it can be expected that these specific attitudes vary across the levels of resources. First, most studies have focused on only one social group, primarily migrants, and less frequently on women or ethnic minorities.